- A4 Paper
An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching.
- Additive Color
Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.
- Against the Grain
At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.
Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.
- Anodized Plate
An offset printing plate having a treated surface in order to reduce wear for extended use.
- Anti-offset Powder
Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave a press. Also called dust, offset powder, powder and spray powder.
- Antique Paper
Roughest finish offered on offset paper.
- Aqueous Coating
A water based, transparent finish applied on offset press like an ink. Aqueous coating is available in gloss and silk/satin finishes and can be applied in simple shapes as spot coating or flooded over an entire surface. This is an economical coating often used to protect publication covers from scuffing and smudging. These coatings add a subtle, professionally finished look and feel.
- Author's Alterations (AA's)
At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA's are considered an additional cost to the client usually.
- Back Up
(1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
- Base Art
Copy pasted up on the mounting board of a mechanical, as compared to overlay art. Also called base mechanical.
- Basic Size
The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight in the United States and Canada.
- Basis Weight
In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size. Also called ream weight and substance weight (sub weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight.
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15 to 48 points.
Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
Extending an image or element beyond the trim edge to prevent leaving thin white margins along the edge of a page trimmed to final size.
- Blind Folio
A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)
- Blind Image
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage when the surfaces are separated.
An enlargement, usually used with raphic images or photographs
- Board Paper
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
The main text of work not including the headlines.
- Boiler Plate
Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over again.
- Bond paper
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
- Book Block
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.
- Book Paper
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
(1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.
- Bristol Paper
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.
The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large sheet of paper.
The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and using a metallic powder.
- Build a Color
To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color. Such an overlap is called a build, color build, stacked screen build or tint build.
- Burst Perfect Bind
To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
- Butt Register
Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and kiss register.
- C1S and C2S
Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.
(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.
- Camera-ready Copy
Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Also called finished art and reproduction copy.
- Carbonless Paper
Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book.
- Case Bind
To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
- Cast-coated Paper
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
- Catalog Paper
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines.
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking.
Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation.
- Close Up
A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages.
The primary color model for design and print solutions combining cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks or dyes to create full-color photos and art. This is the model used for all process color printing.
- Coated Paper
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
- Collating Marks
Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.
- Color Balance
Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph.
- Color Blanks
Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type. Also called shells.
- Color Break
In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break for color.
- Color Cast
Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
- Color Control Bar
Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar.
- Color Correct
To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.
- Color Curves
Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables.
- Color Gamut
The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing.
- Color Key
Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay color proof.
- Color Model
Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found in nature.
- Color Separation
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing. Also called separation.
- Color Sequence
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation.
- Color Shift
Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.
- Color Transparency
Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations.
- Comb Bind
To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
- Composite Art
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color breaks.
- Composite Proof
Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
- Comprehensive Dummy
Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colors. Also called color comprehensive and comp.
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature and season.
- Contact Platemaker
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame.
- Continuous-tone Copy
All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone.
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays.
Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.
- Cover Paper
Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
- Crop or Trim Marks
Thin lines at the corners of an image, page, or artwork that indicate where the material should be trimmed after printing. Bleeding elements extend beyond these marks.
Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
- Customer Service Representative
Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR.
- Cut Sizes
Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
- Cutting Die
Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.
A finishing method using a metal die to press shapes or text into paper or cardstock to create a lowered surface.
- Deckle Edge
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.
Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces; transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.
(1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.
- Density Range
Difference between the darkest and lightest areas of copy. Also called contrast ratio, copy range and tonal range.
- Device Independent Colors
Hules identified by wavelength or by their place in systems such as developed by CIE. 'Device independent' means a color can be described and specified without regard to whether it is reproduced using ink, projected light, photographic chemistry or any other method.
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.
- Die Cut
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.
- Die Line
A vector line element of a template that indicates a cut (trim), score (fold), or perforation.
- Digital Printing
A printing method that sends digital information directly to a printing device to transfer an image to a variety of media. Toner-based digital presses as well as wide, grand, and flatbed inkjet are all forms of digital printing. This printing method is most suitable for low- to medium-volume quantities, oversized, and variable data work.
- Digital Proofing
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
- Direct Digital Color Proof
Color proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other computer-controlled device without needing to make separation films first. Abbreviated DDCP.
- Dog Ear
A letter fold at the side of one of the creases, an indentation occurs.
- Dot Gain
Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
- Double Bump
Applying two layers of ink to provide scuff resistance and color richness. This usually applies to large fields of spot color and will cause a slightly darker or richer color due to extra ink density.
Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.
Dots per inch. This is a measurement of printing device resolution. Higher resolutions can achieve higher quality results.
Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job. Also called pulldown.
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.
Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by overexposure during camera work.
- Dry Back
Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.
- Dry Trap
To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.
- Dual-purpose Bond Paper
Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.
- Dull Finish
Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.
- Dull Strike-Through
A finishing method employing a dull spot varnish and a flood coat of gloss aqueous coating. The flood of aqueous rolls off of the solvent-based varnish and only sticks to the uncoated areas of the paper sheet creating a dull background with gloss elements (spots) or the opposite if designed in that manner.
Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.
- Duplex Paper
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Offset press made for quick printing.
A finishing method using a metal die to press shapes or text into paper or cardstock to create a raised surface.
- End Sheet
Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.
- Equivalent Paper
Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. . Also called comparable stock.
To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.
Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.
- Fake Duotone
Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink color. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph, duplex halftone, false duotone, flat tint halftone and halftone with screen.
- Fast Color Inks
Inks with colors that retain their density and resist fading as the product is used and washed.
- Felt Finish
Soft woven pattern in text paper.
- Felt Side
Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.
- Fifth Color
Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.
- Film Laminate
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
- Fine Papers
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.
- Finished Size
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
- Flat Color
(1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and spot color. (2) color that seems weak or lifeless.
- Flat Plan (Flats)
Diagram of the flats for a publication showing imposition and indicating colors.
- Flat Size
Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
- Flush Cover
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush
Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.
- Foil Emboss
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.
- Foil Stamping
A method that uses heat, pressure, metal dies, and foil film to transfer inks or foils onto a document.
- Fold Marks
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
- Folio (page number)
The actual page number in a publication.
- For Position Only
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.
Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme.
- Form bond
Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also called register bond.
- Four-color Process Printing
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.
- Free Sheet
Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper.
- French Fold
A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
- Full-range Halftone
Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.
- Full-scale Black
Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire tonal range of the image, as compared to half-scale black and skeleton black. Also called full-range black.
- Galley Proof
Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also called checker and slip proof.
(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. (2) To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run.
- Gate Fold
A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.
Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to nested. Also called stacked.
- Ghost Halftone
Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image.
(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.
Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.
Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).
- Gloss Ink
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.
- Graduated Screen Tint
Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette.
- Grain Direction
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.
- Grain Long Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.
- Grain Short Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
- Gray Balance
Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image.
- Gray Component Replacement
Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while color separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic color removal.
- Grind Edge
Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
- Gripper Edge
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.
- Groundwood Paper
Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
- Hairline (Rule)
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.
- Half-scale Black
Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows and midtones, as compared to full-scale black and skeleton black.
(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final printed product.
- Halftone Screen
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.
- Halo Effect
Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.
- Hard Dots
Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.
- Hard Mechanical
Mechanical consisting of paper and/or acetate and made using paste-up techniques, as compared to electronic mechanical.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.
Additional material added to the edge of sewn products to fold over and sew a finished edge. Bleed needs to be extended over the hem if printed elements run to the edge of your design.
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.
- High-key Photo
Photo whose most important details appear in the highlights.
Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.
- Hinged Cover
Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.
Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the color-control options often found in software, for design and page assembly. Also called HVS.
- Hot Spot
Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
- House Sheet
Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.
A specific color such as yellow or green.
- Image Area
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage,
Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee's name on business cards. Also called surprint.
- In-Plant Printer
Department of an agency, business or association that does printing for a parent organization. Also called captive printer and in-house printer.
- Ink Holdout
Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.
- Ink Jet Printing
Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
- Inner Form
Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. Hence the 'K' in CMYK.
(1) The screw that controls ink flow from the ink fountain of a printing press. (2) To relate loose pieces of copy to their positions on a layout or mechanical using a system of numbers or letters. (3) Alternate term for the color black, as in 'key plate.'
- Key Negative or Plate
Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose image guides the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer.
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines.
- Kiss Die Cut
To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut.
- Kiss Impression
Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a Substrate.
- Kraft Paper
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.
- Laid Finish
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)
- Laser Bond
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.
- Laser-imprintable Ink
Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed is used in a laser printer.
- Lay Flat Bind
Method of perfect binding that allows a publication to lie fully open. (Also known as Lay Flat Perfect Binding.)
Amount of space between lines of type.
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
- Ledger Paper
Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records. Also called record paper.
Directions about a specific matter (illustrations) and how to use. In regard to maps and tables, an explanation of signs (symbols) used.
- Letter fold
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.
- Letter Paper
In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.
- Lightweight Paper
Book paper with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm).
- Line Copy
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to continuous-tone copy. Also called line art and line work.
- Linen Finish
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
- Live Area
Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area.
- Loose Proof
Proof of a halftone or color separation that is not assembled with other elements from a page, as compared to composite proof. Also called first proof, random proof, scatter proof and show-color proof.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
- Low Key Photo
Photo whose most important details appear in the shadows.
- M Weight
Weight of 1,000 sheets of paper in any specific size.
- Machine Glazed (MG)
Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
One of the four process colors.
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
- Male Die
Die that applies pressure during embossing or debossing. Also called force card.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Instructions written usually on a "dummy."
To prevent light from reaching part of an image, therefore isolating the remaining part. Also called knock out.
- Matte Finish
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical consists of paper and/or acetate, is made using paste-up techniques, and may also be called an artboard, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also called an electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images assembled using a computer.
- Mechanical Bind
To bind using a comb, coil, ring binder, post or any other technique not requiring gluing, sewing or stitching.
- Mechanical Separation
Color breaks made on the mechanical using a separate overlay for each color to be printed.
- Mechanical Tint
Lines or patterns formed with dots creating artwork for reproduction.
- Metallic Ink
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.
- Metallic Paper
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and gloss simulate metal.
In a photograph or illustration, tones created by dots between 30 percent and 70 percent of coverage, as compared to highlights and shadows.
- Mil 1/1000 Inch
The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed in mils.
Phenomenon of droplets of ink being thrown off the roller train. Also called flying ink.
- Mock Up
A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.
Spotty, uneven ink absorption. Also called sinkage. A mottled image may be called mealy.
- Native Files
The default file format that an application uses to create or save files.
- Neutral Gray
Gray with no hue or cast.
- News Print
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and "a short life use."
- Nonimpact Printing
Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer images to paper.
- Offset Printing
A printing method that involves transferring an image to a metal plate and onto a rubber blanket, then finally onto the surface of a variety of media. This printing method is most suitable for high-volume quantities.
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
(1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing paint. Also called block out and spot.
- Outer form
Form (side of a press sheet) containing images for the first and last pages of the folded signature (its outside pages) as compared to inner form.
- Over Run
Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
One side of a leaf in a publication.
- Page Count
Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent.
- Page Proof
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.
In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
A spot color (named color) system for matching colors used in pre-mixed offset printing inks in addition to the standard CMYK inks. Pantone is also used as a default color communication tool for digital content creation and digital print matching, although all digital printing uses some form of process color printing not formulated printing inks. The color model of the Pantone system exceeds both CMYK and RGB color models and contains colors that cannot be exactly matched in CMYK and RGB. This system is commonly referred to as PMS (Pantone Matching System).
- Parallel Fold
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Proofreader mark meaning printer error and showing a mistake by a typesetter, prepress service or printer as compared to an error by the customer.
- Perf Marks
On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.
- Perfect Bind
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.
- Perfecting Press
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Phenomenon of ink pulling bits of coating or fiber away from the surface of paper as it travels through the press, thus leaving unprinted spots in the image area.
- Pickup Art
Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated in a current job.
Small holes (unwanted) in printed areas because of a variety of reasons.
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Also called pel.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
- Pleasing Color
Color that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.
(1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)
- Post Bind
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
Pixels per inch. A measurement of digital file resolution. Higher values can produce higher quality results. PPI is often miscommunicated as DPI.
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation.
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
- Press Check
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.
- Printer Pairs
Usually in the book arena, consecutive pages as they appear on a flat or signature.
- Printer Spreads
Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.
- Process Color (Inks)
The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
- Production Run
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to makeready.
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
- Proofreader Marks
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks.
- Publishing Paper
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.
Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations.
(1) Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature. (2) Book made from quarto sheets, traditionally measuring about 9' x 12'.
- Rag Paper
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content of "cotton rags."
- Raster Art/Image
Digital artwork or images composed of horizontal and vertical rows of pixels. Resolution dependent for print and display quality.
- Raster Image Processor
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
- Reader Spread
Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages, as compared to printer spread.
500 sheets of paper.
- Recycled Paper
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
- Register Marks
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Alignment of ink separations, coatings, and/or other finishing methods to one another. If they align properly, they are “in registration.” Finishes like UV coating or even a die cut can register to printed elements.
Ability of a device, such as an imagesetter, to produce film or plates that yield images in register.
Image – The amount of pixels in an image or other raster art. Expressed in PPI (pixels per inch). Image resolution is a factor of image reproduction quality, but not a sole judgment how it will reproduce.Print Devices – (offset press plates and digital printers) The amount of screen dots in a raster image. Expressed in DPI (dots per inch).
Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.
The color model of computer monitors, image scanners, digital photos, and content intended to be displayed on device displays. RGB content is comprised of red, green, and blue pixels and is converted to CMYK for printing. The RGB color model is visually more vibrant and exceeds the printable colors in the CMYK color model.
- Right Reading
Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written. Also describes a photo whose orientation looks like the original scene, as compared to a flopped image.
- Round Back Bind
To casebind with a rounded (convex) spine, as compared to flat back bind.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
- Saddle Stitch
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
- Satin Finish
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
The process of using a metal die to make a crease in paper so it will fold easily.
- Screen Tint
Color created by dots instead of solid ink coverage. Also called Benday, fill pattern, screen tone, shading, tint and tone.
- Self Cover
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.
- Self Mailer
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.
Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding qimages of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colors through film.
Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery stack of a press. Also called offset.
Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones and high-lights.
- Sheetfed Press
Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also called work and back.
Allowance, made during paste-up or stripping, to compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair stepping and progressive margins.
- Side stitch
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.
Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.
Compound mixed with paper or fabric to make it stiffer and less able to absorb moisture.
- Slip Sheets
Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.
- Soft Dots
Halftones dots with halos.
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.
- Soy-based Inks
Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
- Specially Printer
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs.
Instrument used to measure the index of refraction of color.
- Specular Highlight
Highlight area with no printable dots, thus no detail, as compared to a diffuse highlight. Also called catchlight and dropout highlight.
Back or binding edge of a publication
- Split Run
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one way and other copies bound another way.
Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.
- Spot Color or Varnish
A premixed ink or varnish used on an offset printing press to produce a color unattainable with process color printing. Often used to print brand colors.
(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.
- Standard Viewing Conditions
Background of 60 percent neutral gray and light that measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the color of daylight on a bright day. Also called lighting standards.
- Step and Repeat
Prepress technique of exposing an image in a precise, multiple pattern to create a flat or plate. Images are said to be stepped across the film or plate.
- Stock Order
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
- Stocking Paper
Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant's warehouse.
To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting flaws in film, assembling pieces of film into flats and ensuring that film and flats register correctly. Also called film assembly and image assembly.
- Stumping (Blocking)
In the book arena, hot die, foil or other means in creating an image on a case bound book.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
- Subtractive Color
Color produced by light reflected from a surface, as compared to additive color. Subtractive color includes hues in color photos and colors created by inks on paper.
- Subtractive Primary Color
Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these are known as process colors because, along with black, they are the inks colors used in color-process printing.
- Swash Book
A book in a variety of forms, indicating specific stock in specific colors in a specific thickness.
Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications recommended for web printing of publications.
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.
- Tagged Image File Format
Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
- Target Ink Densities
Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage.
- Technical Ink
A spot color swatch used to indicate position and create a non-color production separation for finishing treatments like coatings, dies, or elements for position only (FPO).
Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.
- Text Paper
Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.
Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept of a future project.
Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific color.
- Tip In
Usually in the book arena, adding an additional page(s) beyond the normal process (separate insertion).
- Tone Compression
Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
- Total Area Coverage
Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film. Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density, shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
- Touch Plate
Plate that accents or prints a color that four-color process printing cannot reproduce well enough or at all. Also called kiss plate.
Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through. Also called chrome, color transparency and tranny. Often abbreviated TX.
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
- Trim Size
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 12 x 8 12).
- Uncoated Paper
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
- Unsharp Masking
Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.
- UV Coating
A process of applying a transparent liquid coating to a printed paper surface and immediately curing it with UV light. UV coatings are most commonly applied in a gloss finish, but are also available in dull, textured, raised, and other finishes and special effects. UV coating can be applied to specific elements as spot coating or flooded over an entire surface. UV gloss finish is usually a higher gloss finish than varnish adding an eye catching flare.
The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness, lightness, shade and tone.
A solvent-based, transparent finish applied on offset press like an ink. Varnish is most commonly available in gloss and dull finishes and can be applied to specific elements as spot coating or flooded over an entire surface. Generally, a varnish finish applies a stronger effect than aqueous coating, but not as pronounced as a UV coating.
- Vector Art
Digital artwork drawn with geometric points, lines, and shapes, allowing the art to be scaled or modified without losing quality or resolution.
- Vellum Finish
Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
- Virgin Paper
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
- Web Press
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
- Wet Trap
To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap.
(1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for placement of a piece of artwork.
- Wire Side
Side of the paper that rests against The Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to felt side.
- With the Grain
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
- Woodfree Paper
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered or supercalendered.
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.